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User Agreement


The data in the Human Mortality Database (HMD) are provided free of charge to all individuals who request access to the database. We ask that you kindly observe the following requests and restrictions:

  1. The HMD provides original estimates of exposure-to-risk, death rates, and life tables as well as the official data used for deriving these estimates. All such data are intended to be used for scientific purposes only. Moreover, all original data provided by official institutions and published here in the section called "Input data" should not be used for commercial gain or re-published in any form without the explicit permission of the data owners (usually government statistical offices).

  2. In all published work and presentations, please acknowledge the HMD as either the source or the intermediary of the data. When you download data, you should note the date for future reference.

    If you are presenting or analyzing our original estimates of exposure-to-risk, death rates, or life tables, we suggest the following format for a bibliographic citation:

    Human Mortality Database.  University of California, Berkeley (USA), and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany). Available at www.mortality.org or www.humanmortality.de (data downloaded on [date]).

    If you choose another citation format, please be sure that it includes the
    full name of the database (Human Mortality Database), the full names of
    both institutional sponsors (University of California, Berkeley, and Max
    Planck Institute for Demographic Research), and one or both of our
    Internet addresses, www.mortality.org or www.humanmortality.de.

    However, please note that a portion of the data available in this collection comes from other sources. For example, most birth and death counts, and many population estimates come from non-HMD sources and form the input to our calculations. In such situations, it is appropriate to cite first the original source of the data, but also to acknowledge the HMD as the intermediary. For example, a bibliographic citation for death counts in the United States would be as follows:

    National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Statistics of the United States, Volume II: Mortality, Part A. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, various years. (Data obtained through the Human Mortality Database, www.mortality.org or www.humanmortality.de, on [date].)

    You will find a list of data sources used for each country. It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the data being cited are original to HMD or if they come from a non-HMD source. It is also the user's responsibility to give proper credit to the organizations and individuals whose data are contained in this database.

    Additional information about how to cite these data is available on the Citation Guidelines page. If you still have questions about proper citation procedures after reading these guidelines, please contact us at hmd@demog.berkeley.edu.

  3. Please do not pass your copy of these data to other users. Rather refer them to the HMD website, where they may download the data for themselves. Since these data will be updated on a regular basis (including corrections as needed), this practice helps to prevent the existence of multiple outdated or incorrect versions. It also ensures that each user has full access to information about the data, citation procedures, etc.

  4. All data contained in the HMD have been carefully checked to avoid errors. However, the HMD (including all project personnel and institutional sponsors) accepts no liability with regard to the material available in the collection. In particular, we accept no responsibility for any harm suffered by the user as a result of using these data, even if such harm results from errors on our part. As a registered user, we ask you kindly to inform us of any errors that you may identify, so that they can be corrected in a timely fashion.

  5. It is our intention to update the HMD on a regular basis and to provide convenient access to the collection (for registered users only) via the Internet. However, we do not accept responsibility for any harm or inconvenience resulting from a suspension of service, whether temporary or permanent.