The data in the Human Mortality Database (HMD) are provided free of
charge to all individuals who request access to the database. We ask
that you kindly observe the following requests and restrictions:
- The HMD provides original estimates of exposure-to-risk,
death rates, and life tables as well as the official data
used for deriving these estimates. All such data are
intended to be used for scientific purposes only. Moreover,
all original data provided by official institutions and
published here in the section called "Input data" should not
be used for commercial gain or re-published in any form
without the explicit permission of the data owners (usually
government statistical offices).
- In all published work and presentations, please acknowledge the
HMD as either the source or the intermediary of the data. When you
download data, you should note the date for future reference.
If you are presenting or analyzing our original estimates of exposure-to-risk,
death rates, or life tables, we suggest the following format for a
Human Mortality Database. University of California,
Berkeley (USA), and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
(Germany). Available at www.mortality.org
(data downloaded on [date]).
If you choose another citation format, please be sure that it includes
full name of the database (Human Mortality Database), the full
both institutional sponsors (University of California, Berkeley, and
Planck Institute for Demographic Research), and one or both of our
Internet addresses, www.mortality.org
However, please note that a portion of the data available in this
collection comes from other sources. For example, most birth and death
counts, and many population estimates come from non-HMD sources and
form the input to our calculations. In such situations, it is appropriate
to cite first the original source of the data, but also to acknowledge
the HMD as the intermediary. For example, a bibliographic citation
for death counts in the United States would be as follows:
National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Statistics of the
United States, Volume II: Mortality, Part A. Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, various years. (Data obtained through
the Human Mortality Database, www.mortality.org
You will find a list of data sources used for each country. It is
the user's responsibility to determine whether the data being cited
are original to HMD or if they come from a non-HMD source. It is also
the user's responsibility to give proper credit to the organizations
and individuals whose data are contained in this database.
Additional information about how to cite these data is available on
the Citation Guidelines page.
If you still have questions about proper citation procedures after
reading these guidelines, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Please do not pass your copy of these data to other users. Rather
refer them to the HMD website, where they may download the data for
themselves. Since these data will be updated on a regular basis (including
corrections as needed), this practice helps to prevent the existence
of multiple outdated or incorrect versions. It also ensures that each
user has full access to information about the data, citation procedures,
- All data contained in the HMD have been carefully checked to avoid
errors. However, the HMD (including all project personnel and institutional
sponsors) accepts no liability with regard to the material available
in the collection. In particular, we accept no responsibility for
any harm suffered by the user as a result of using these data, even
if such harm results from errors on our part. As a registered user,
we ask you kindly to inform us of any errors that you may identify,
so that they can be corrected in a timely fashion.
- It is our intention to update the HMD on a regular basis and to
provide convenient access to the collection (for registered users
only) via the Internet. However, we do not accept responsibility for
any harm or inconvenience resulting from a suspension of service,
whether temporary or permanent.